The international monetary system has developed in a way that was not foreseen by the IMF statutes. These new forms of monetary interdependence have enabled huge flows of capital. During the Bretton Woods era, countries were reluctant to formally change exchange rates even in the event of structural noise. As these changes had a direct impact on certain national economic groups, they were considered political risks for heads of state or government. As a result, official exchange rates often became unrealistic for the market, which was a virtually risk-free temptation for speculators. They could move from a weak currency to a strong currency, hoping to reap benefits in the event of an appreciation. However, if the monetary authorities were able to avoid a revaluation, they could return to other currencies without loss. The combination of risk-free speculation and the availability of huge sums of money has been very destabilizing. The agreement also facilitated the creation of very important financial structures: the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), now known as the World Bank. Post-war global capitalism suffered from a huge shortage of dollars. The U.S. had huge trade surpluses and U.S.
reserves were huge and growing. It was necessary to reverse this river. Although all nations wanted to buy U.S. exports, the dollars had to leave the United States and be available for international use so that they could do so. In other words, the United States should reverse global prosperity imbalances by chartering a trade deficit financed by the U.S. outfed of reserves to other nations (a deficit in the U.S. fiscal balance). The United States could have a financial deficit, either by building plants, or by building plants, or by foreign nations.
Remember that speculative investments were discouraged by the Bretton Woods agreement. Imports from other nations were not attractive in the 1950s because American technology was up to date at that time. This is how multinationals and global aid from the United States originated.  The Bretton Woods Convention of 1944 introduced a new global monetary system. It replaced the gold standard with the U.S. dollar as the global currency. It thus established America as a dominant power in the global economy. After the agreement was signed, America was the only country with the ability to print dollars. The Bretton Woods system was put in place as a more stable replacement for the gold standard under which all currencies were converted to gold.
Under the new agreement, the dollar was the standard for international transactions, which were valued at one ounce of gold. The fact that the United States held a large portion of the world`s gold reserves allowed the dollar to play its new role as a standard currency on which the stock markets were based. At the end of the war, the Bretton Woods Conference was the culmination of about two and a half years of planning for post-war reconstruction by the Treasuries of the United States and the United Kingdom. American officials studied with their British colleagues the reconstruction of what had been lacking between the two world wars: an international payments system that would allow nations to act without fear of sudden currency devaluations or sharp exchange rate fluctuations – diseases that had almost paralyzed global capitalism during the Great Depression. The Bretton Woods system was created in 1944 at a U.S. Treasury World Conference at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, at the height of World War II.