Bioprospecting has not started. The Merck-INBio agreement was abandoned in 2011 and Costa Rica`s revenues from research samples were never close to the $300 million per year it generated from coffee exports. In 2013, INBio requested public donations to pay employees` salaries. Eli Lilly, Bristol-Myers Squibb and other large multinationals have also abandoned their international bioprospecting projects. In the early 1990s, pharmaceutical giant Merck entered into a bioprospectation agreement with the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, known by the Spanish acronym INBio. Merck would gain exclusive access to test the therapeutic potential of INBio`s extensive collections of indigenous organizations in exchange for an advance payment of millions of dollars, in-kind research contributions and the promise of royalties in the event commercial products are identified. The irresponsibility is incredible, wrote a visibly angry Ortiz Volio in an editorial, as well as the initial arrogance, and two decades later, bankrupt, they hand over everything the state can pay.  (INBio did not technically go bankrupt, but was unable to pay its bills. InBio management has, by mutual agreement, characterized the expropriation process.)  INBios` most famous contract was a 1991 contract with the pharmaceutical company Merck, signed prior to the signing of the CBD at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. At the Earth Summit and beyond, the Merck-INBio agreement was touted as a sign of a new era for tropical forests, which will bring great financial benefits to developing countries. The Merck deal was described as a success until the 2000s, although Merck withdrew the agreement in 2008 and donated its library of natural connections in 2011, according to one commentator, as if it were commemorating the 20th anniversary of its Costa Rican madness.   Rojas P (2015). INBio seguir al frente del INBioparque por un ao ms, tras acuerdo con el gobierno.
crhoy.com noticias (website), March 31. URL: www.crhoy.com/del-dia-inbio-seguira-al-frente-del-inbioparque-por-un-ano-mas-tras-acuerdo-con-el-gobierno/ other biologists in Costa Rica have been equally critical and have found that INBio has benefited from numerous confidential bioprospecting agreements, without public accounting, that oppose it to the efforts of indigenous peoples, local communities and other NGOs to develop Costa Rica`s biodiversity law, which offers rules of access and benefit sharing. InBio makes what has never been the case, they write, referring to biodiversity collections, saying they could have been better used over the past two decades to support protected areas rather than INBio itself.   Rodrigo Gamez Lobo, director of INBio, interviewed by US Public Radio International (1992). Pharmaceutical prospecting. Living on Earth, September 4 (transcript). URL: loe.org/shows/segments.html?programID=92-P13-00036&segmentID=1 1996, two colleagues and I translated these insights into a mathematical model and published our results in the Journal of Political Economy. From there, a typical pattern developed: people argued about our claims.
Some authors took our calculations and said they were defective. Another couple of researchers took up the calculations of our critics, arguing that they had made a serious mistake and that our initial results were actually quite close to the truth. Researchers have continued to cite and challenge this growing work, and the academic and industrial complex is poised to induce research in the field of bioprospersporation and genetic resources.  Wade, Lizzie (2014).